The plumage of males and females is similar, but the males are more brightly coloured. Additionally, 89% of all records were concentrated in the far eastern portion of the state, east of the 96th meridian. There eggs are creamy and pink with brown spots in them. The brilliant Prothonotary Warbler bounces along branches like a golden flashlight in the dim understory of swampy woodlands. Parents feed juveniles up to 35 days after fledging that had just left the box. Prothonotary warblers infrequently (∼6% of 560 nests) deserted nests that were parasitized during the egg-laying period, but frequently (56% of 151 nests) deserted nests that were parasitized before a female warbler laid her first egg. Bright yellow overall with an olive back and grayish wings. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The Prothonotary Warbler is a small bird about 14 cm long. These forests are often flat and shady with standing dead trees that have old woodpecker and chickadee holes for nesting. Prothonotaries adapt well to artificial nest cavities including nest boxes constructed from milk cartons (Fleming and Petit 1986). In The birds of North America, No. Prothonotary Warblers lay 3 to 8, usually 5 or 6, eggs in these carefully constructed nests. Correspondence: J. P. Hoover, Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, U.S.A. (email:[email protected] ). The Prothonotary Warbler is bright golden yellow with blue-gray wings and tail and a yellow-olive back. See disclaimer, The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, and J. Fallon. The male selects and prepares a nesting spot before trying to attract a mate. In Oklahoma atlasers found most breeding in the easter half of the state (Bray 2004). In winter Prothonotary Warblers are rare to very rare along the Texas coasts and the lower Rio Grande valley (Lockwood and Freeman 2004). Field Ornithol. Petit, L .J. The area checklist for the Austin region cites a record for a fall migrant as late as approximately October 25 (Travis Audubon Society Records Committee 1989). Heavy-bodied warbler that is yellow overall with a beady black eye. Prothonotary Warblers nesting in nest boxes: Clutch size and tining in Virginia, Raven 63: 15-20. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. Photo by Robert Peak. The Prothonotary Warbler is a large, heavy-bodied warbler with a big head and bill. a citation for the author. Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) observers in east Texas recorded this species at rates of <1 to 1-3 birds per 40 km (25 mi) route, typical of most of this warblers range. Nesting material: moss, twigs, plant fibers, dried grasses, grass stems, rootlets, dried catkins, willow leaves, etc. Nest Description: Nest ID: Mainly mosses and liverwort, plus lichen, rootlets, small twigs and dry leaves, and strips of bark (e.g., grape and cypress), plant down. The Cornell Lab will send you updates about birds, birding, and opportunities to help bird conservation. It has been suggested that prothonotary warblers, Protonotaria citrea, respond adaptively to brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, even though they lack historical habitat and range overlap with cowbirds. Harrison, H. H. 1975. It migrates relatively early in both spring and fall. Cavity competition and suspected predation on  Prothonotary Warblers by Peromyscus spp. In contrast, in south-central Louisiana, rates averaged 10-30 birds per route (Sauer et a;. Literature cited: With May came the joy of eggs in the boxes and the dismay of flooding. Seen from below, it has white under the tail. 2005). Copyright © 2003 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Eggs: Oval, smooth, somewhat glossy shell, with a creamy or slightly yellow tinge. Left: PROW adult feeding a caterpillar to nestlings. PROW nestlings and one unhatched eggs egg. Nest Description: Nest ID: Mainly mosses and liverwort, plus lichen, rootlets, small twigs and dry leaves, and strips of bark (e.g., grape and cypress), plant down.


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