From the horizontal perspective, the three basic  elements in technology transfer are the home country, the host country and the  transaction. Your email address will not be published. Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the person or organization that owns or holds it to another person or organization. Many economists treat direct  foreign investments and licensing agreements as synonymous with  international  technology transfers. Some groups in developing countries oppose technology  imports and insist on indigenous production of new technology. In selecting the optimal equipment configuration, we must look  beyond the general goals of low cost and high productivity and consider each  configuration’s demands for labor skills and attitudes, supervision, industrial  engineering for tools and manufacturing techniques, materials and supplies,  maintenance, product scheduling, inventory controls, and quality control  procedures. Since LDCs often lack  indigenous firms who can affect the transfer, they rely heavily on foreign  consultants. LDCs many rely on indigenous  enterprises or on foreign firms to do the importing. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER International Technology Transfer of Technology and D istribution of Technology Capabilities: The Case of Railway Development in Indonesia. SATYA SNIGDHA DAS Finally, It includes the transfer of  technology from a research consortium supported by many firms to one of the  members. [6] Through legislation including the Bayh-Dole Act, Congress encourages the private sector to use those technologies with commercial potential through technology transfer mechanisms such as Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, Patent License Agreements, Educational Partnership Agreements, and state/local government partnerships. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Automobiles, trucks, refrigerators,  shoes, pharmaceuticals, and metal fabrication head the list, but there are more  and more others. If the incentives offered exceed the investor’s  opportunity cost of forgoing its other alternative, parties, the LDC and the  multinational corporation (MNC), benefit. More than 15 million users have used our Bookshelf Often it occurs by concerted effort to share skills, knowledge, technologies, manufacturing … Psychological Contract - Meaning and Importance, Earnings Management Practices and Techniques, PRINCE2 Methodology in Project Management, Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA), Important Soft Skills for Workplace Success, Understanding Different Types of Supply Chain Risk, Supply Chain Integration Strategies – Vertical and Horizontal Integration, Understanding the Importance of International Business Strategy, Employee Participation and Organization Performance, Psychological Contract – Meaning and Importance, Workplace Effectiveness: Easy Tips to Bring the Team Together, Portfolio, Programme and Project Management Maturity Model (P3M3), Schedule as a Data Collection Technique in Research, Role of the Change Agent In Organizational Development and Change, Case Study of McDonalds: Strategy Formulation in a Declining Business, Case Study: Causes of the Recent Decline of Tesla, Roles and Responsibilities of Human Resource Management, Interview Method of Data Collection in Research, Nature and Importance of Managerial Principles by Henri Fayol. To obtain new technology, a  nation has three alternatives: For most Least Developed Countries (LDCs), home production of technology is often uneconomic. The quickest way to do so is to  transfer technology from the developed to the developing nations. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The technology supply of LDCs is powerfully influenced by the policies of  public authorities. 9780195062359, 0195062353, eText ISBN: The analytical model also provides an exhaustive analysis of all critical variables at the global, regional and national levels, which contribute, Technology Transfer in International Business. to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials, or services. Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9780195362800, 0195362802. taken in using international and domestic transfer of technology and combining these transfers with knowledge accumulated through internal effort in order to build stronger capabilities and improve their innovation performance. Some technologies,  such as that of the latest IBM computers or coca-cola syrup, are absolutely  nonnegotiable. More than 1000 weblinks and 500 acronyms and abbreviations. These transfers may occur between universities, businesses (of any size, ranging from small, medium, to large), governments, across geopolitical borders, both formally and informally, and both openly and secretly. There are two main types of licenses: 1) one which grants an exclusive right to use the technology; 2) another with non-exclusive right, which implies that the patent owner may transfer the ri… At present[when?] The direct cost of such acquisition is any special incentives that the country is  required to offer to interest the potential investor, who may have more profitable  investment alternatives elsewhere. SOURABHA RAY. This gives the MNC a strategic bargaining advantage and  wide latitude for its demands for incentives. The social and cultural implications of technology transfer  are more serious than the economic significance. At the other extreme are the so-called sheleved technologies, for  which their owners are anxious to find any takers at all. At the macro and micro levels, nations people, and organizations increasingly  depend on technology for prosperity and quality of life. Technology transfer covers various activities, including the internal transfer of technology from the R&D or engineering department to the manufacturing department of a firm based in a country. This important collection examines the means by which technological knowledge is transferred from countries that develop it to those who need it. Technology Commercialization; International Trade; The Role of Technology in Business. As a result of the potential complexity of the technology transfer process, technology transfer organizations are often multidisciplinary, including economists, engineers, lawyers, marketers and scientists. Thus, it is imperative that a technical strategy be derived in part from a  realistic assessment of the total environment in which it is to operate. The print version of this textbook is ISBN: 9780195062359, 0195062353. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Given the decrease in exports and increase in imports,  the balance of trade tends to be adverse to be adverse to the home country. Horizontal transfer is the movement of technologies from one area to another. Required fields are marked *. It is closely related to (and may arguably be considered a subset of) knowledge transfer. Often it occurs by concerted effort to share skills, knowledge, technologies, manufacturing methods, samples, and facilities among the participants. through International Technology Transfer Agreements. The economic environment affects costs and availability of workers; the  political environment establishes what is acceptable for a plant to make and  how.


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